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INDONESIA ARTIST 1997
Special Stamps Issuance
As an honor for Indonesian artist who have dedicated their effort and talent to the development of Indonesian art, the Directorate General of Post and Telecommunications issues a series of stamps named "Indonesian Artists". The series features the artists W.R. Soepratman, Usmar Ismail and Affandi, each representing the music, film and painting art.
Wage Rudolf Soepratman, born in Jakarta on 5 March 1903, was a prominent figure in Indonesian music history. He was the one who composed the national anthem, "Indonesia Raya". W.R. Soeprtman spent his teens in Makassar, attending Nederlandsche Avondcurus (Dutch languange night course) and teacher's school. After he had graduted, he worked at a law office. Ten years later he returned to Jakarta and worked at "Kaoem Moeda" (Toung People) newspaper. While working, he joined a chamber orchestra and became a violinist. When he changed the work to "Alphena" news agency, he was introduced to national movement figures which influenced his patriotism.
To express his solidarity to the people's sorrow, he wrote a book called "Perawan Desa" (Village Girl) but the Dutch colonial government banned its publishing. The ban didn't prevent him from motivating people's spirit. He composed several songs which delivered nationalism messages. The pieces were including "Mars Kepanduan Bangsa Indonesia" (The Indonesian Scout Movement March), "R.A. Kartini", "Surya Wirawan" (Heroes Sun), "Matahari" (The Sun), and "Bendera" (The flag). The song "Indonesia" which later became "Indonesia Raya" was written to raise people's spirit to fight against colonialism. The song was first performed at the Indonesian Youth Congress on 28 October 1928 which resulting the famous "Youth Oath".
W.R. Soepratman died on 17 August 1938 and was buried in Surabaya as a national hero.
The name Usmar Ismail is inseparable from the Indonesian film history. He is regarded as the Father of Indonesian Film. Born in Bukittinggi on 20 March 1921, he finished the HIS (Hollandsch Inlandsche School or Dutch elementary school for the natives) in his home town, MULO (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Ondewijs or intermediate school) in Padangpanjang, and AMS (Algemeene Middelbare School or high school) in Yogyakarta. During that time the Japanese took over the colonialism from the Dutch's hand. The young Usmar went to Jakarta to continue his study at a higher school. When he had graduated from the school in 1943, he worked at the Cultural Center Office (Keimin Bunka Shidoso) for two years. While working he developed his interest and talent in art field. He wrote poems, ahort stories and learned drama. With some friends like Rosihan Anwar and H.B. Jassin, he founded a theather group called "Maya" (illusion) and started beoming a director. During this time he made experiment to perform modern theather using written script, which was something unusual for that time. It made him regarded as a pioneer in Indonesian modern theather.
In 1944, Usmar wa the chief editor of :"Harian Rakyat" (People's Daily) newspaper. When the Dutch troops returned to Indonesia in the following year, he moved to Yogyakarta and served in the Army for three years as a Major. He also worked with some newspaper and was the chief of the Indonesian Journalists Association (PWI), as well a some artists organizations.
His great interest in cinematography founds its way when he assisted film director Andjar Asmara in making the film "Gadis Desa" (Country Girl). His own debut as a flm director was "Harta Karun" (Treasure) (1949), followed by "Tjitra" (image). In 1950, he established a film company called National Film Company (Perfini) which produced "Darah dan Doa" (Blood and Prayer), "Enam Djam di Jogja" (Six Hours in Yogyakarta), and "Dosa Tak Berampun" (The Unforgiven Sin) (1951). Then he was given a grant from Rockefeller Foundation to learn cinematography in the University of California, Los Angeles, the United States. Soon after returning home, he directed "Kafedo" and "Krisis" (Crisis) which was comercially a success, and "Lewat Djam Malam" (After Midnight). His other films were including "Tiga Dara" (Three Girls) (1956), "Asrama Dara" (The Girl's Dormitory) (1959), "Pejuang" (Soldier) (1959), and "The Big Village" (1970). His last film was "Ananda" (1970) which brought Lenny Marlina to the stardom.
During his career as a director, Usmar Ismail had made 25 films, some of which garnered awards both from domestic and international film societies. in 1962, he received the Widjajakusuma Award from President Soekarno. This year the government honored him Bintang Mahaputra Award. His name is now used as a Cinematography Center in Jakarta. The director who brought a handful of innovation to the local film industry died on 2 January 1971 in Jakarta.
Affandi was born in Cirebon in 1907 (the date and month unknown). He finished his HIS school in Indramayu and MULO in Bandung, than continued his school at AMS in Jakarta. He quitted the school at AMS only a few days before the last exam because he decided to be a painter. He moved to Bandung and worked as a name board painter for shops, cinema poster painter and at night he became a ticket collector in the cinema. In order to be able to concentrate painting, he went to Bali. But it didn't last long because he worried about his family back home in Bandung due to the arrival of Japanese troops in Java. Finally he returned to Bandung . In 1943, he held an exhibition in Jakarta and gained wide attention.
The political situation was getting hot because the Dutch tried to return and maintain its grip on Indonesian soil.This made most of the painters move to Yogyakarta. The city then became the painting activity center for sometime. When he came back to Jakarta in 1948, he established an association called 'Gabungan Pelukis Indonesia" (Indonesian Painters Association). It was during this time his famous work "Mata-Mata Musuh" (Enemy's Spy) was made.
In 1949, he was given a grant by the Indian government to learn painting art at Shantiniketan Art School. During his stay in India, he made several journey and exhibitions. In this country, he painted "Potret Diri dengan Tujuh Matahari" (Self Portrait and the Sevens Suns) (1950) and "Gunung di Darjeeling" (Mountain in Darjeeling) (1951). From India, Affandi was departed to Europe. He went to London, Paris, Rome , Brussel and The Hague. This journey gave him conviction about his place in the world painting art constellation. In Europe, he made some pieces like "Perkawinan Kartika" (Kartika's Wedding) and "Affandi Menggendong Cucunya yang Pertama" (Affandi Holding His First Grandchild).
In 1956, he participated in Biennial exhibition in Sao Paolo, and in the following year he learned about art teaching method in the United States. During these years, Ohio State University appointed him as a visiting professor. In 1974, University of Singapore granted him the title Doctor Honoris Causa and in 1977 the Dag Hammerskjoeld Foundation, gave him International Peace Award. At home, the government conferred upon him the title "Bintang Maha Jasa Utama".
Affandi died on 21 May 1990 in Yogyakarta. He had painted around 2,000 works, 200 of which are displayed in Affandi Museum in Yogyakarta which he built in 1961.
Product code : 97061
Issue Date : 30 April 1997
Denomination, design and designer : Rp 300.00 featuring music artist WR Soepratman designed by Hardjanto
Rp 700.00 featuring film artist Usmar Ismail designed by Hardjanto
Rp 1.000,00 f aturing pinting artist Affandi designed by Slamet Sugiyanto, Self Potrait by Affandi
Size : 25.31 mm x 41.06 mm
Perforations : 13.5 x 12.75
Colors : 5 colors + 1 logo
Paper : white unwatermarked
Gum : PVA
Printing process : combinations of offset and rotogravure
Printing quantity : 1,000,000 sets
Sheet composition : 50 pieces (10x5)
Printer : Perum Peruri, Jakarta
Data Source : Ensiklopedi Indonesia; MATRA Magazine
Product code : 970615
Price : Rp 6,000.00
Printing quantity : 50,000 sheets
FIRST DAY COVER
Product code : 970620
Price : Rp 2,800.00
Printing quantity : 20,000 pieces
Designer : Yani Madya
Printer : Phicom Studio, Bandung
Product code : 970630
Price : Rp 2,000,00
Design : painting artist Affandi
Painting : Self Portrait by Affandi Kartika Affandi
Designer : Slamet Sugiyanto
Background : Affandi Museum by
Quantity : 70,000 pieces
Printer : Perum Peruri, Jakarta
Stamp Sales Period : 30 April 1997 - 31 Desember 2000
Period of Validity For Letter Postage : 30 April 1997 - 31 December 2002
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